Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Individual Dip Cups

I have solved the issue of double-dipping!  You can have a cocktail hour in December without the fear of spreading the flu.  It takes about ten minutes longer than simply making a dip and pouring it into a bowl, but the presentation makes a much greater effect and all but eliminates the spread of germs.

I used some glass bowls I have for the photo because I didn't want to go back out, but Party City has an impressive array of plasticware for "tasting parties".  I've never done one.  It seems like an awful lot of work that you reserve for foodie friends who truly appreciate the effort.  I don't have many of those.  The cups and bowls are mostly in the 2-ounce range, and the prices are quite reasonable.  Smart & Final also carries a variety of containers, including the little salad dressing cups you get at takeout.  You can make up a couple of trays of these little cups and bring them out whenever the need arises.  This also reduces the chance of serving warm and possibly hazardous dip that has been sitting out too long.

This idea also lets you get a little creative with presentation.  I garnished a 6-layer dip!  I also used fresh lime juice for the guacamole layer and really liked the result.  The sour cream is actually plain Greek yogurt, which I use frequently as a substitute.

For non-layered dips, a fast way to fill the small cups would be with a pastry bag or ziplock with the corner snipped off.  Again, it's the presentation.  There's no reason onion mix-and-sour cream dip on football night can't be an event.  It may even reduce the number of calories consumed, as you watch the stack of cups on the coffee table grow.  Dips are bad for diets because you have no idea how much you've had.  Individual cups may give dieters the freedom to enjoy what they otherwise might have passed on because they can now see the portion size.

I am definitely doing this the next time I put out dip.  A few extra minutes and a couple of dollars for the cups is worth it to keep your guests healthy.

Saturday, October 18, 2014

One Little Tomatillo

Tommy must have heard me thinking about tearing him out in favor of something that actually produces.  When I went out to pick a tomato that afternoon, I found several tomatillo husks.  The fruit inside them was the size of peas, but it was enough improvement for me to let him live a while longer.  I did have to rip out Kale.  She had some kind of bug infestation and most of the leaves had died.  I still have kale ribs in my freezer's broth bag, so she may make a contribution to Thanksgiving from beyond the compost pile.
Wow, washing them a lot makes your hands look old.
A week later, only one husk had a sizable fruit in it, and that size was smaller than my cherry tomatoes. What am I supposed to do with one little tomatillo?  I guess it can be a garnish on one serving of something.  I'll probably buy several more in order to make it an ingredient, totally defeating the purpose of growing the plant.

Even with the success of the pumpkins, this year's gardening effort was nowhere near profitable.  Guess I'll try again next year.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Lavender-Lemon Shortbread

I wanted cookies and found this recipe from last year's L.A. Times cookie contest that I had never made.  Good enough.

If you have a food processor, this recipe comes together in just a couple of minutes.  Then you chill it and bake as desired.  If all you have is a blender or coffee grinder, there will be some manual labor involved.  Maybe five more minutes than the food processor version.

The difference between a "cookie" and a "shortbread" is one egg.  With the egg as a binder, it's a cookie.  Without, it's flavored pie crust and known as shortbread for the high proportion of fat that shortens the gluten strands.  Yes, that's what "shortening" means when you talk about Crisco.  It's the fact that fat creates a barrier around flour grains, preventing long glutens from forming.  This does not mean a product is gluten-free, merely that the protein of gluten is deterred from creating long strands.  This is why cookies and cakes crumble, while long-strand products like bread do not.

My batch of shortbreads got very dark on the bottom.  The most likely cause was cutting them too thick.  I only got 15, and didn't feel like re-rolling and re-chilling the log.  Another possible cause was putting them on a dark sheet pan.  I also get better results when I use the silpat.  Then there's the possibility of my oven being a bit hot.  Whatever I did, they did not taste burnt.  They smell like lavender and have a distinct lemon tang.  Not bad for a few minutes' work.

*1 tsp dried lavender
1/3 C sugar
1-1/2 tsp finely grated lemon zest (either use a micro-planer or chop up regular zest)
1 C flour
pinch of salt
1/2 C (1 stick) cold butter, cut into 1/2" cubes
1-3 tsp lemon juice

1.  With the food processor running, drop lavender through the tube.  The reason for this technique is that the blade will sit above the buds if you put them in first and nothing will happen.  Doing it while the machine is running will keep them moving until they are pulverized.  Trickle in sugar and lemon zest, then pulse until combined.  If you let it run, the sugar will turn into powdered sugar and escape.  Add salt and flour and pulse to combine.

2.  Add butter and pulse until the big chunks are gone.  Add lemon juice half a teaspoon at a time and pulse between additions.  You know you have enough when it starts to clump.  I did this on a dry day, and it took a full tablespoon.

3.  Roll dough into a log about 10" long and wrap in plastic wrap or wax paper.  Chill 1 hour in the fridge for immediate use, or place wrapped roll in a ziplock baggie for freezer storage until needed.  Just thaw for about 30 minutes before using.

4.  Preheat oven to 350º.  Slice log crosswise into 1/2" pieces and arrange on ungreased cookie sheet.  Bake until edges are golden brown, about 20-25 minutes.  Cool on a rack and serve.

Makes 20

Difficulty rating  π

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Tomato-Yogurt Dip

I amassed a whopping four small tomatoes on the day I was trying to eat only from pantry and garden items.  This turned into a sauce to have with some falafel and chicken, since I didn't have any cucumbers for a proper tzatziki.

I've made roasted tomato spreads and cheeses, but I don't remember ever doing it with fresh tomatoes in a cream base.  It's fantastic.  You get the bright freshness of the tomato flavor against the tang of the yogurt.  It's almost like a soup, and works great against any vegetable, bread, fish, or poultry.   Plus, it takes less than five minutes to make.

*1/2 lb tomatoes, seeded and petite diced
*1 C plain yogurt (Greek or regular)
*1 Tb lemon juice
*dash of salt
*dash of dill weed

1.  Stir together tomatoes, lemon juice, salt, and dill.

2.  Stir in yogurt.

3.  Chill and serve.  If it sits overnight, some of the whey and tomato water will pool up.  You can either drain it off or stir it back in before serving.

Makes about 2 cups

Difficulty rating  π

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Chicken Stock & Consommé

And this is what you do with the bones from the chicken you de-boned last week.

I'm going traditional with this one, straight out of the garde manger textbook.  However, I'm cutting it down a bit.  What is the average home cook going to do with a gallon of chicken stock?  Here, we're working with one chicken's worth of bones and trimmings, which will be somewhere between 1-1/2 and 2 pounds.  That will make about a quart, otherwise known as enough for the base of your average pot of soup, risotto, or stuffing recipe.

I rifled through the broth bag to pick out only celery, onion, and carrot for the base stock.  There's an awful lot of kale in there.  I still have a quart of veggie broth in the freezer, but my next batch will be heavy on the kale and celery.  That would be lovely for a stuffing base.  Can you tell that I'm ready for Thanksgiving?

For the second part of this recipe, the consommé, I cut up fresh stuff.  I even sacrificed half a pound of perfectly good ground turkey.  Unlike stock, which is leftovers, consommé is a proper recipe in its own right.  It is an elegant and somewhat labor-intensive dish, and all diners think of it is strained soup.  It is clarified soup, which can also be boiled down into a reduction sauce or all the way down into a form of gelled, preservable soup base that can be rehydrated.

Chicken Stock
2 lbs chicken bones
6 C water
2 oz by weight chopped onion
1 oz by weight chopped celery
1 oz by weight chopped carrot
1 bay leaf
3 coriander seeds or peppercorns
1 sprig fresh thyme

1.  In a pot, bring chicken bones and water just barely to a boil, then reduce to a simmer.  Boiling will bring up scummy stuff, so keep the water on as low a heat as possible.  Cover and come back in 4 hours.
2.  Stir in remaining ingredients, leave the lid off, and continue to simmer for another hour.

3.  Run contents of pot through a coffee filter or cheesecloth placed over a mesh strainer.  It will take some time, but don't force the liquid through.  All those little specks of cooked chicken at the bottom of the pot are safe to eat, but not pretty.  Refrigerate overnight, then skim off any fat.  Stock may be used immediately or stored up to three days.

Makes about 1 quart

Difficulty rating  π

Chicken Consommé
1 quart chicken stock
1/2 lb ground chicken or turkey (ground beef is more traditional)
3 egg whites (1/2 C if you're using carton)
2 oz diced onion
1 oz diced carrot
1 oz diced celery
herbs of choice (bay leaf, thyme, rosemary, parsley, etc)
salt and white pepper to finish
reserved carrot and celery leaves for garnish

1.  Make meatloaf out of everything except the stock, salt, and pepper.  Just mush it all together.
2.  In a large saucepan, add stock and that lump of meat, then stir it together while heating over medium.  It's going to look like something you don't want to eat.  Let the soup warm up slowly, stirring every minute or so until the meat forms a "raft".  Yes, it's just as gross as it sounds.  Reduce heat to a simmer.  You don't want to boil this, or the act of boiling will kick up more of the gunk we're trying to get rid of.  The idea is that the raft absorbs any bits left in the stock, while emitting more flavor.
3.  After an hour, strain through coffee filters or cheesecloth over a mesh strainer.  Use a ladle so you don't have to kick up more debris.  Think of it as wading on the edge of a lake.  You can drag your feet until it gets muddy or step carefully and only get wisps around the ankles.  The raft doesn't look any better after it's cooked, but it is perfectly safe to eat.  I added mine to some marinara.  You could stir it into mac & cheese, chili, or anything Hamburger Helper.

4.  Add a very subtle amount of salt and white pepper to the consommé, just one or two shakes for the whole batch.  Chill consommé, then skim off any fat.  Can be served chilled or hot, with bits of celery and carrot as garnish.  If chilled, it will require one extra shake each of salt & pepper.  Mine didn't come out as clear as I was hoping (see photo at top), but I totally nailed the salt & pepper.  The flavor is rich, yet smooth, with only the faintest hint of the spices and herbs.

Makes about 3 C

Difficulty rating :)

Monday, October 6, 2014


Found something to do with the maple syrup!  Granola can be really expensive for something that is mostly rolled oats, which cost less than a dollar a pound.  And then there always seems to be something in it you don't like, or something missing you do like.  Problem solved, make it yourself.

I'm still trying to take one meal a day with me to work, since I seem to be staying long enough for both breakfast and lunch on most days.  We do have a low-fat granola on hand, but I thought this would be a cool project that anyone could do, even as a cooking lesson with kids.  And it's nice and easy, after the last post.

I'm starting with Alton Brown's recipe, which has many positive reviews.  It's a little too sweet for my taste, so I'm cutting back on the sugar.  My mix-ins were sweet, which may have something to do with it, but even the oats part was a bit much.

Speaking of a bit much, this makes a lot more than I thought.  When his recipe said six servings, I was picturing six cups of granola.  Then it filled my half-gallon jar, and there was still more in the bowl.  I'm going to cut it in half here, and make the list of mix-ins more generic.  The only specific I'm using is rolled oats as opposed to quick oats.  It's going to make a big difference in your finished product.

1-1/2 C rolled oats
1 C mixed nuts (I used sliced almonds and broken macadamias)
*6 Tb (1/4 C + 2 Tb) coconut flakes - I used unsweetened
2 Tb dark brown sugar
*3 Tb maple syrup or honey
2 Tb vegetable oil
1/4 tsp salt
up to 1 C other mix-ins like dried fruit and chips

1.  Preheat oven to a mere 250º.  Get out a rimmed baking sheet.  No parchment or greasing required.

2.  In a medium bowl, combine oats, nuts, coconut, and brown sugar.  In a separate bowl, combine maple syrup, vegetable oil, and salt.

3.  Combine two mixtures until dry mix is thoroughly coated.  You can even let it sit a few minutes to let everything soak in together.  Pour out onto sheet pan in a single layer.

4.  Bake for 1 hour and 15 minutes, stirring every 15 minutes for even browning.  If granola starts to look dry and crisp at the 1 hour mark, go ahead and pull it.

5.  Allow to cool on pan, then stir in dried fruit and/or chips.  I used dried cranberries and yogurt chips.  Taste and add light salt if needed, which would mainly be if you went heavy on the nuts.  Store in a sealed container at room temperature.

Makes about 1 quart

Difficulty rating  π

Friday, October 3, 2014

How to Debone Poultry

I finally got around to it, the lesson I have been wanting to do almost since I started this blog.

The version I'm doing is the classical one demonstrated by Jaques Pepin on PBS many, many years ago.  It's on the long side, but an excellent demonstration.
There are faster ways to do it, but this one preserves the most meat and the shape of the chicken.  I did this once to a turkey.  Do not buy a Butterball, or you will be pulling out handfuls of butter from between every muscle.  Once it was stuffed and tied up, it looked like a turkey on a diet, but the shape was intact.  The leg bones had been replaced with stuffing, and the whole thing could be sliced crosswise like a loaf.  I didn't have to figure out how to carve it.  I had done all the hard work before it went into the oven.

For this demo, I picked up some Cornish hens.  Very thin bones.  With smaller poultry, you have to be extra careful not to tear the meat or skin.  Chicken, duck, and goose are all the mid-sized fowl that are easiest to do with this method.  Since you get a better meat yield with deboning, over 90%, I was able to allow half a hen per serving instead of the usual full bird.

This took me 20 minutes for the first bird and about 18 for the second.  Some of that time was stopping to wash my hands to take pictures, but not much.  It has been about ten years since I've done this, so a first-timer should expect a similar result.  In a professional kitchen, the prep cook should be able to do it in about five minutes.  The turkey took me slightly over an hour.  In my defense, it was not 100% defrosted and I spent a lot of time dumping that butter in a bowl.

All right, here we go, breaking down the video into smaller segments:

1.  Get out an array of very sharp and thin knives, plus one heavier knife to break the legs.  By having a few on hand, you'll be able to switch off more easily if you realize one isn't quite right for a particular step.  Unwrap bird, rinse thoroughly, and pat dry with paper towels.  Make sure the cutting board is secure, with either a towel or grip pad underneath.  Have a plastic bag handy to collect the bones.  Either freeze them for a project we're doing next week, or use it to seal them before throwing away.  They smell after a few days.

2.  Remove two end segments of the wings.  On a person, that would be shoulder to elbow that stays put.  This is easily done by placing a knife in the joint, which should give way without effort.  You can save the next joint for a wing dish or toss it in the bag.

3.  Place chicken breast-side up.  There should be a neck opening so you don't have to cut the skin.  Make two small slashes at the top of the breast just deep enough to pull out the wishbone.  If it breaks, make sure you go in there and get all the pieces.  It is an extremely sharp and dangerous bone once broken, and you're going to be sticking your hand in there in a minute.

4.  Turn over the bird and slice the length of the backbone, all the way down to the bone.  I find it easier to make two cuts, one on each side of the spine.  They will be very close together, maybe half an inch apart, and go neck to tail.

5.  Back on the breastbone side, reach through the wishbone slashes until you feel the shoulder joints.  Disjoint them with the tip of a knife, making sure to cut the sinews.  Do not remove the wing bones just yet, or cut any of the skin.

6.  Flip over again and pull the flesh off the carcass at the ribcage.  Pepin talks about including the "oysters", which are a pair of round muscles at the hip-bone.  Since you are going through the back, the breast meat should be largely intact.  Sometimes, the filets come off as you're pulling.  If not, pull them off separately and remove the long sinew as Pepin demonstrates.  Bony parts go in the bag, meat back on cutting board.
7.  Scrape down the thigh bones until the "knee" joints are exposed.  Cut connective tissue and remove thigh bones.

8.  Using the back of your heavy knife, break the "feet" knobs free of the leg bones.  For the turkey, I needed Techie Smurf's help to break the bones.  The Cornish hens were so light, I could almost do them with bare hands.  Scrape down leg bones and remove, leaving feet in the skin.

9.  Scrape down and remove last wing bones.

10.  Double-check for bones, cartilage, and connective tissue.  The only tough parts left should be the feet.

Now, what to do with this floppy mess of meat.  The fancy dish would be a galantine, which the average home cook would not necessarily serve the family for dinner.  A ballotine is more appropriate, and is what I did.  My trussing string is from Home Depot.  Don't spend a lot, just make sure it's cotton.  Pepin's looping technique is not only classical, it is the easiest and most reliable way to tie up poultry or a roast.

When cooking a stuffed, deboned piece of poultry, the standard 350º oven and 160º pull temperature are still recommended.  Make sure you are temping the center of the stuffing, especially if it contains eggs.  The other five degrees are from a ten-minute rest.  The cooking time may be slightly less because the stuffing is usually less dense than the meat and bones.  It depends on what you use and how tightly it's packed.  Use a thermometer, check every 15 minutes until it gets close.

Good luck!

Difficulty rating $@%!

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Pumpkin & Coconut Rice Pudding

When you've got pumpkin to burn....

I've been looking for ways to decrease my grocery bills, then looked at the freezer and pantry.  My, there's a lot more stuff in there than usual!  I bought quite a bit of coconut milk and shredded coconut when Sprouts was having a Coconut-themed sale.  Then there was my guilty stock-up of healthy grains and beans when I was eating too much junk.  And of course the quart-plus of pumpkin purée from my "harvest".  There will still be enough for a pumpkin pie at Thanksgiving.

I went back and forth debating what kind of rice to use.  Many of the recipes I found use brown rice, as it holds up well against the pumpkin and has a better nutritional profile.  I decided to go with Calrose, or sushi rice, for its medium grain and softer taste.  This was going to be breakfast.  Also, I had the right amount left.

1 C rice of your choice
*1 13.5 oz can light coconut milk
water as needed
1 C pumpkin purée
*1/3 C unsweetened coconut flakes
*1 tsp cinnamon
*1/4 tsp nutmeg
*1/4 tsp cloves
dash of salt
1/4 C brown sugar
*2 Tb maple syrup (or more brown sugar)

1.  In a medium saucepan, stir together rice, coconut milk, 1 C water, and a dash of salt.  Bring to a boil, then simmer until rice is cooked and most of the liquid is absorbed, about 20 minutes.

2.  Stir in pumpkin, spices, and sugars.  Return to a simmer and add more water if pudding appears dry.  At some point, I started adding milk, but that's because I have a lot of it at the moment.  This recipe is plenty creamy without dairy.  Taste, and add more syrup if not sweet enough.

3.  Just before serving, stir in coconut.  Serve hot in bowls or chilled in ramekins for dessert.  Garnish with more coconut flakes.

Serves 5 to 6 as breakfast, 8 as dessert

Difficulty rating  π

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Sprouted Apple Seeds

I cut into an apple one day to find that most of the seeds had sprouted.  The fruit was fine, not spoiled at all.  The seeds had simply decided to germinate.  How long was that apple in the fridge, anyway?

It made me wonder where baby apples come from, so I looked it up.  As soon as I saw the part about apple trees growing 30 feet tall, any thoughts of planting my sprouts ended.  I can't reach half of my lemons.  Not planting a giant tree during a drought.

So, why did it happen?  Apple seeds must "winter over" below 40º before they can sprout.  Most produce suppliers keep their apples refrigerated so they won't spoil, and I refrigerate mine because I buy a bunch at once and get through them eventually.  Apples can keep for months in cool conditions if they are unblemished.  At some point, the apples were removed from refrigeration and allowed to warm up to room temperature for at least two weeks.  At this point, the seeds thought winter was over and germinated.

It is safe to eat an apple in this state if it is not otherwise rotten.  We probably eat a lot of sprouted apples in our lives but don't know it because we eat to just outside the core and toss.

Anyway, I thought this was an unusual piece of fruit trivia to pass along.

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Maple & Bacon Cinnamon Rolls

Um, Shanah Tova?  You know I don't keep kosher.  This post just has unfortunate timing.

I bought a new jar of yeast for this one.  And I cut out the recipe from the L.A. Times.  Recipes like this are one of the reasons I still get a printed paper.  I would have missed this one entirely if I only subscribed online, mainly because their site design is better suited to a phone app than my laptop.  It took me a day to figure out the navigation.  It's also a matter of archiving.  Sure, I have this blog as a recipe index, but I can't look up any of these recipes if my ISP goes down.  Recipe cards are always there, generations later.

If you check out the link, you'll see the nutritional information.  A quick comparison will also show that I have trimmed nearly half the fat out of my version, most of it in butter.  And yes, I did reduce the amount of bacon for the same reason, but the flavor comes through.  I also cut back because you're more likely to buy a one-pound package than ask the meat counter for 1-1/2.  I just could not, in good conscience, bake a 500-plus-calorie cinnamon roll.  So this is probably 400-plus.  I tried.  Also remember that it's your whole meal, with hopefully a piece of fruit on the side.

Maple syrup is really expensive.  I've always used the flavored corn syrup that passes itself off as maple, so I didn't know.  It also goes bad if you don't use it in a reasonable amount of time and requires refrigeration once opened.  Now I need to come up with other uses for it.  Lots of pancakes and waffles in my future.  The kicker is that there's so much brown sugar, you can't even taste the pure mapleness.  Save yourself ten bucks and use a good-quality, corn syrup-based pancake syrup instead.

Oh, and the original recipe had 14 steps.  I followed them, but realized halfway through how pointless some of them were and am simplifying things a lot.  I'm also dividing the ingredients list, instead of making you try to figure out if you've used all the listed tablespoons of something.

I cheated on the icing and added maple and bacon fat to the cream cheese icing we have at work.  This is only because I baked them off with my first bake of the day and didn't have time to make the icing during my shift.  The recipe is a valid one, and I feel confident endorsing it by the ingredients list.

1 package (2-1/2 tsp) yeast
1/4 C sugar
4 Tb (1/4 C, half a stick) unsalted butter
*1 C milk
3-4 C flour
1 egg
1/2 tsp salt
oil for bowl

1.  Microwave milk, butter, and sugar for 45 seconds, until about 100º F.  Butter does not need to melt. Stir in yeast and let sit until foamy, about 5 minutes.

2.  In stand mixer with paddle, stir together salt and 1 C flour.  Add milk mixture and beat into a batter, about 2 minutes.  Add egg and another cup of flour and beat again.  If dough still looks too soft to knead, add another half cup of flour.

3.  Pour out dough onto liberally floured board and knead until smooth, about 5 minutes.  The egg in the dough will make it sticky even when it has absorbed enough flour, so try to add as little as possible. You shouldn't hit the 4 cup allowance.  Form dough into a ball and turn over in a lightly oiled bowl to coat all sides.  Place in a warm place to rise until doubled, about 1 hour.

1 lb thick-cut bacon, cut into 1/4" pieces
3/4 C light brown sugar
*2 Tb cinnamon
1 Tb butter, melted
1 Tb maple syrup

1.  While dough is rising, prepare filling.  Cook bacon in a large skillet until crispy, about 15 minutes, and drain on a paper towel.  Reserve 1 Tb of the rendered bacon fat for later stages of the recipe.

2.  Stir together brown sugar and cinnamon.  In a separate bowl, combine melted butter and syrup.

3.  Punch down dough and let rest for 10 minutes.  Roll out on a large, lightly floured board into a 12" by 18" rectangle.  With a brush, coat entire surface with butter/syrup mixture.  Sprinkle all but a 1" strip of the long side with cinnamon sugar, then sprinkle bacon on top of the sugar.
4.  Line a rimmed baking sheet with parchment.  Spray lightly with cooking spray.  Starting on the long side with sugar (bottom in the photo), roll up dough into a log.  Cut log into 12 pieces with a very sharp knife, roughly 1-1/2" apiece.  Those bacon pieces are tough.  Place cut-side down on baking sheet, about half an inch apart.  At this point, you can cover the baking sheet with plastic wrap and keep it in the fridge overnight, or go directly to the next section.

1 egg, beaten with 1 Tb syrup
1/4 C cream cheese
1/2 C powdered sugar, sifted
1 Tb bacon grease
2 Tb syrup
milk as needed

1.  Place baking sheet in a warm place until rolls have proofed to the point where they just barely touch each other, about 30 to 45 minutes.  Preheat oven to 375º.

2.  Brush egg-and-syrup wash over rolls.  This will give them the dark golden color and add some of that maple flavor.  Bake for 20 to 25 minutes, until puffed and golden.

3.  While rolls are baking, cream together cream cheese and powdered sugar.  Melt bacon grease until fluid but not boiling.  Add grease and 2 Tb syrup to glaze and beat until smooth.  If too thick to drizzle off a spoon, add some milk a bit at a time.

4.  Remove rolls from oven when done.  Slide parchment with rolls still on it onto a cooling rack.  Allow them to cool for a few minutes before drizzling with glaze, then let the glaze harden a few more minutes before serving.

Makes 12 (and yes, I'm aware there are 14 in the photo.  I was watching TV at the time and lost count of my cuts.)

Difficulty rating  :-0